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Cryogenic systems are a major investment.

Long waits for data can slow down development cycles and hinder production schedules. Cryogenic test services allow you to avoid the high upfront capital cost of a complete system, enable immediate access to cryogenic data, and ensure you are obtaining the data you need to advance your program.

Join us at the Cryogenic Test Lab, located in Boulder, Colorado, where you can partner with FormFactor to build custom probing solutions and collect the valuable cryogenic data you need. Whether it’s at 4 K or < 50 mK, we will work with you to solve your unique test and measurement challenges.

How can we help enable your technology?

  • Screen for manufacturing defects at cryogenic temperatures to improve device sorting
  • Statistically correlate room temperature data with cryogenic performance by obtaining high volume data at the wafer scale
  • Pre-characterize Qubits prior to deployment to reduce QPU bring-up time
  • Material characterization of superconducting devices
  • Peace of mind on your next purchase. Try cryogenic probing systems before you buy

Video: Advanced Cryogenic Test Lab Virtual Tour


Video: Cryogenic Test as a Service – Perspectives

What we offer

We offer a range of services and accessories to support your cryogenic testing requirements, including singulated die characterization at sub-50 millikelvin and high-throughput wafer probing from sub 4 Kelvin to 77 Kelvin. Engineering services are provided at an hourly rate to support test set ups at various levels of complexity. Senior scientists are available to consult on your test plan and assist with more complicated measurements. Cryogenic probes and probe cards are available for both DC and RF measurements (>20 GHz), that can be customized for your device layout and test requirement.

Custom Chip Scale Testing

Service Overview

Singulated dies and packaged devices can be tested in a cryogenic environment down to 50 mK. This service is ideal for low volume testing, applications development, and materials characterizations. A library of standard probes and sockets are available for use. Custom probes, fixtures, and cables can be included in this service for an additional fee.

Testing is conducted on a Model 106 ADR cryostat which uses a two stage ADR to achieve a base temperature of 50 mK.  The system is also equipped with a large 4 K plate and many signal feedthroughs. Some example measurements include superconducting qubit pre-screening using dispersive readout, LNA component testing, and superconducting transition temperatures.

Contact us today for more information on this service.

Service Unit Price Credits
Custom Chip Scale Testing 1 day 1 Credit

Custom Wafer Scale Testing

Service Overview

Full scale wafers can be tested down to 4 K using fully automated probe movement. This service is ideal for high volume rapid measurements on 150 mm and 200 mm wafers. Two layers of magnetic shielding provide an ideal environment for testing superconducting devices. Standard probe cards are available to get started quickly, or a custom probe card can be manufactured for an additional fee. The automation allows measurements to run overnights and over weekends, taking full advantage of the testing time.

Measurements are conducted on a IQ3000 Cryogenic Wafer Prober with manual wafer exchange. The system uses closed cycle cryocoolers to maintain base temperature without being interrupted by helium dewar exchanges on wet systems. Some applications include parametric testing on superconducting (SC) flux quantum (SFQ) circuits, readout resonator screening on SC qubit circuits, and ultra-low noise (ULN) measurements of random telegraph signal (RTS) on read-out integrated circuits (ROIC).

Contact us today for more information on this service.

Service Unit Price Credits
Custom Wafer Scale Testing 1 day 5 Credits

Low Noise Figure Component Testing

Service Overview

Coming soon.

Contact us today for more information on this service.











Cryogenic Test Services Pricing

The CryoPass allows for universal access to all test service offerings. CryoCredits can be loaded onto the pass and redeemed at a later date. Giving you the freedom to choose the service that fits your needs.

CryoCredit $4,995/credit
20 Credit Bundle 10% Discount
100+ Credit Bundle 20% Discount

Available Equipment

HPD Model 106 ADR Cryostat

Cryogenic System

Model 106 ADR Cryostat

  • < 50 mK base temperature
  • 10 mm Singulated die test
  • No wire bonding
  • Up to 12 RF (<12 GHz)
  • 48 shielded twisted pair
  • Probe socket
HPD IQ3000

Cryogenic System

IQ3000 Wafer Prober

  • < 4.5 K wafer probing
  • 200 mm wafer
  • 300 mm wafer fragment
  • Magnetic shielding (<200 ηT)
  • 56 RF and > 300 DC
  • Probe cards
Keysight - P9374A VNA

Measurement Equipment

P9374A VNA from Keysight

  • Maximum Frequency: 20 GHz
  • Number of Built-In Ports: 2 ports
  • Dynamic Range: 115 dB
  • Output Power: 7 dBm
  • Trace Noise: 0.003 dBrms
Keysight B290A SMU

Measurement Equipment

B2901A SMU from Keysight

  • Channels: 1 ch
  • Source Capabilities: 210 V, 3 A DC/10.5 A pulse
  • Source Resolution: 100 nV/100 fA
  • Max Speed: 100,000 rdgs/s
Keysight 34980A Switch

Measurement Equipment

34980A Switch Mainframe from Keysight

  • Matrix Configurations: 4x32, 8x64, 4x128, 16x32
  • Max Voltage: +/- 100 V
  • Max Current: 0.5 A
  • Max Frequency: 20 MHz
  • Scan Rate: 500 ch/s
  • Available Cards: 34934A

Additional modules can be acquired to expand the capabilities

Keysight P5025B VNA

Measurement Equipment

P5025B from Keysight

  • Maximum Frequency: 26.5 GHz
  • Number of Built-In Ports: 4 ports
  • Dynamic Range: 141 dB
  • Output Power: 8 dBm
  • Trace Noise: 0.003 dBrms

Cryogenic Applications

Technical Presentations / Papers

Low-noise amplifier cryogenic testbed validation in a TaaS (Testing-as-a-Service) framework
 | Boiko, Zhang, Jorgesen, Engelmann, Grosskopf, Paske

As quantum computers based on superconducting qubit processors scale, cryogenic microwave components in the qubit control and readout chain must be appropriately tested and qualified to ensure consistent and high-fidelity quantum computation. However, the intersection of superconducting cryogenics and microwave electronics is a new domain with limited technical and commercial expertise. In this paper we validate a TaaS (testing-as-a-service) framework using an organizational workgroup model that consists of (1) a commercial Test House, (2) standard temperature Component Manufacturer, (3) Academic Partner, and (4) System Integrator to demonstrate a scalable model for the qualification of cryogenic microwave components. The goal of this model is to secure the supply chain and support the rapid growth of Quantum Computing (QC) technologies. The component test vehicle presented in this paper is a low-noise amplifier (LNA) which is a crucial component in the cryogenic chain to ensure adequate signal-to-noise of the qubit readout. We devise standard test metrics and protocols by which LNA performance is measured, including key parameters such as gain and flatness, reflection and isolation, operating bandwidth, and noise figure. We present details of the cryogenic testbed customized for LNA qualification, outline test methodologies, and present a suite of standard processes that are used to systematize data collation and reporting. The testbed is validated by reproducing parameters of a pre-characterized LNA. Its value is demonstrated by characterizing a proof-of-concept cryogenic LNA prototype. Finally, we describe the extension of our TaaS framework toward testing at scale for various active and passive cryogenic components used in QC.

Fully Automatic 4K Cryogenic Probe Station for DC and Microwave Measurements on 150mm and 200mm Wafers | West
Technical Presentation at IMS 2022

Robust maturation of cryogenic electronics has been limited by the lack of high-throughput measurement capabilities, especially for electronics that operate at 4 K. Automated on-wafer probing to characterize the dc and RF performance of components and complete circuits has been a critical element in the development of room temperature electronics. We report here the development of a fully automated wafer prober that operates with the wafer cooled to a temperature of 4 K and has the ability to null the ambient magnetic field to below 100 nT, which is important for measuring superconducting circuits with the wafer prober.

Accelerated Solid State Qubit Pre-Screening | DeGrave
Industry Workshop at IMS 2022

Until recently, quantum engineers operating devices at milli-Kelvin temperatures are faced with the difficulties and inconveniences of long development cycles The major bottlenecks include time-consuming wire bonding, expensive packaging processes prior to device cooldown, and long cooldown times for dilution refrigerators This workshop presents an integrated measurement solution for Pre-Screening qubit devices, allowing quantum engineers to eliminate wire-bonding and packaging from cryogenic test processes and to provide critical qubit performance parameters at 50 mK, thus streamlining device deployment, and reducing the time for development cycles

Strategies for Enabling Quantum Development with Test and Measurement from 77K down to milli-Kelvin | DeGrave
MicroApps Seminar at IMS 2022

Quantum computing will likely utilize numerous new technologies which operate at different cryogenic temperatures. For example, a quantum computer might deploy CMOS memory modules at 77 K, superconducting control chips at 4K, and a quantum processing unit (QPU) at less than 20 mK. To develop and deploy these various subsystems and technologies, it is vital to reliably and efficiently test and measure them at or near their operating temperatures.

Wafer-Scale Characterization of a Superconductor Integrated Circuit Fabrication Process, Using a Cryogenic Wafer Prober
IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 32, No. 5, August2022

Using a fully automated cryogenic wafer prober, we measured superconductor fabrication process control monitors and simple integrated circuits on 200-mm wafers at 4.4 K, including SQIF-based magnetic field sensors, SQUID-based circuits for measuring inductors, Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb Josephson junctions, test structures for measuring critical current of superconducting wires and vias, resistors, etc., to demonstrate the feasibility of using the system for characterizing niobium superconducting devices and integrated circuits on a wafer scale. Data on the wafer-scale distributions of the residual magnetic field, junction tunnel resistance, energy gap, inductance of multiple Nb layers, and critical currents of interlayer vias are presented. A comparison with existing models is made. The wafers were fabricated in the SFQ5ee process, the fully planarized process with eight niobium layers and a layer of kinetic inductors, developed for superconductor electronics at MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, MA, USA. The cryogenic wafer prober was developed at HPD/FormFactor, Inc., Boulder, CO,USA.

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