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mmW and THz frequencies are utilized by new applications for materials research, wider communication bandwidths, medical imaging, military and aerospace, and other emerging technologies.

FormFactor has partnered with Keysight Technologies, Virginia Diodes and DMPI to deliver a fully integrated solution for accurate on-wafer mm-Wave and THz measurements.

Challenges of mm-Wave and THz Measurements

Insertion Loss

One of the biggest challenges when testing at mm-Wave and terahertz frequencies is increased insertion loss in the measurement channel. With traditional measurement setups, this will lead to less dynamic range and directivity, and ultimately less accurate calibrations.

Measuring Over Temperature (Hot and Cold)

Thermal changes naturally expand or retract the probes and waveguides, which can affect the calibration accuracy. This is especially problematic for large frequency extenders and long waveguides, so keeping the electrical measurement path as short as possible and highly stable is preferred.

Optimized Integration

FormFactor’s modular on-wafer integration approach for advanced over-temperature mm-Wave and THz measurements positions the frequency extenders as close to the wafer as physically possible. This approach overcomes the challenges in precise waveguide probing, resulting in highest accuracy and reliable data over a full thermal range from -60°C to +125°C.

Fully Integrated Measurement Solution

FormFactor takes a holistic view to develop successful approaches to wafer-level testing of mm-Wave and Terahertz devices. We have forged partnerships with other industry-leading suppliers of test technology to leverage each contributor’s individual strengths. FormFactor applies its considerable expertise to engineer integration and automation tasks. This creates a robust, supportable solution to get you started making optimized mm-Wave and terahertz measurements without further development. Our solutions help reduce costs, time, and ultimately get your products to market faster.

Highest Data Accuracy

Lowest Possible Insertion Loss
Bringing the frequency extender as close to the probe as possible drastically shortens the path to the device. This considerably reduces the insertion loss which leads to a higher raw directivity and dynamic range at the probe tip, resulting in highly accurate calibrations.

Extremely Stable Calibrations
Downsizing the measurement path leads to a minimized thermal expansion as well as improved directivity. The combination of these reduces the drift associated with temperature changes to a minimum and allows calibrations to last longer before the need of re-calibration.

Full Thermal Range – Exclusive RF TopHat with Probe Window

With 5G devices powering the vehicle to everything (V2X) market there is a need for EMI and light-tight testing at a wide temperature range, including tests down to -40°C without a build-up of frost and condensation.

With FormFactor’s patented RF TopHat (available for CM300xi, SUMMIT200, Summit 12000 and Elite 300), the solution has full thermal capability from -60°C to +125°C. The RF TopHat was designed to minimize cable lengths, prevent stiction which impacts motorized positioner accuracy, and maintain a dark, shielded and frost-free measurement environment.

The exclusive I.T.O. coated TopHat window allows easy setup and tracking of probes without having to open the MicroChamber. The window is always shielded, always frost-free and includes a cover for dark measurements. The patented FlexShield interface enables resistance-free and highly accurate probe positioning.

The setup can be converted between TopHat and non-TopHat configurations to meet different test requirements.

Autonomous RF Measurement Assistant – Faster Time to Market with Increased Accuracy

FormFactor’s advanced mm-Wave and terahertz measurement solution can be enhanced with the revolutionary Autonomous RF Measurement Assistant*, which enables fully autonomous, hands-free RF calibrations and measurements over multiple temperatures.

Featuring the unique Contact Intelligence™ Technology, it significantly reduces cost of test and accelerates time to market with increased accuracy and reduced design cycles.

Unique Ergonomic Concept – Completely Modular Solution for Easy Swapping Between Bands

FormFactor’s engineers constantly strive for maximum ergonomics and ease of use.

Consequently, our RF positioners are completely modular – simply choose between a manual or programmable positioner body and add a specific arm. The arms are equipped with a dovetail that makes it easy, safe and fast to change between different measurement applications.

Our RPP404 and RPP504 positioners have been developed specifically for high-performance RF, mm-Wave and terahertz measurements, to give the highest positioning resolution for the most accurate and repeatable probe positioning and measurement performance. With 0.3 μm resolution even the smallest errors can be recognized and corrected.

Multiple positioners can be located not only in the east and west, but also the north and south locations.



Digital Micrometer Upgrade Kit for RPP404. Separates RF probes a precise known amount. This is particularly useful when performing TRL calibrations which require different lengths of line.

Industry-leading High-performance Probes – Standard for On-wafer Measurement of mm and Sub-mm Wavelength Devices

Infinity Waveguide Probe
This component/on-wafer probing solution is designed to meet the challenges of high-frequency probing for advanced on-wafer modeling and characterization while providing low, stable contact resistance on 50 micron pads. The Infinity Waveguide Probe’s new membrane GSG contact tip design reduces stray EM fields near the probe tip. Control of EM fields near the tip allows repeatable measurements up to 500 GHz and improved crosstalk performance between the tips.

T-Wave Probe
T-Wave Probes set the industry performance standard for characterization of mm-Wave devices. This probe delivers lowest insertion loss and contact resistance when probing gold pads. It has excellent tip visibility and enables characterization of devices up to 1.1 THz.

Infinity Waveguide Probe

T-Wave Probe - FormFactor

WinCal XE™ – High-performance RF Calibration Software

WinCal XE™ from FormFactor is a comprehensive and intuitive on-wafer RF measurement calibration tool to achieve accurate and repeatable S-parameter measurement, which is crucial for precision device modeling/characterization and engineering RFIC test. WinCal XE is fully-integrated with Velox Probe Station Control Software: A two-way channel of communication synchronizes probing processes with RF measurements and calibrations. The WinCal XE features a guided system setup complete with customizable Wizards to ensure fast and easy access to reliable VNA calibration and repeatable data.